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顾佰和、安岩:绿色低碳发展,不妨试试基于自然的解决方案

2021-08-30 光明日报
【字体:

yuyinbobao

  新冠肺炎大流行重创了本已脆弱的全球经济,如何开展疫后经济复苏,成为国际社会面临的重要课题。要在经济复苏中坚持绿色低碳发展,就必须将经济复苏与更深层次、更广泛的全球气候危机联系起来,而基于自然的解决方案强调将自然资本转化为绿色经济增长的源泉,通过“解锁”自然力量应对包括气候变化在内的一系列社会危机。

  为更好地推动基于自然的解决方案贡献我国的碳中和目标和绿色复苏计划,要进一步明确其在碳中和目标愿景中的定位,主动将其纳入下阶段相关部门碳达峰碳中和行动方案,构建自上而下的协同工作机制,制定多目标多领域协同治理政策,发挥中国的引领作用,以国际社会理解的语言讲好中国生态文明故事,引领全球生态文明建设。

  1、实现碳中和的重要补充手段

  zaiyihou“lvsefusu”dexingshixia,jiyuzirandejiejuefangankezhulishixian2060tanzhonghemubiao,bingdailaizhuduoxietongxiaoyi。jutibiaoxianweiyixiajigefangmian:

  shixianshendujianpaiyuanjingbukehuoquedeshouduan。tuidongjingjizengzhangyunengyuanxiaofeituogou,jiakuainengyuanxitongshendutuotan,guranshishixiantanzhonghedezhongyaocuoshi,ranerjiyuzirandejiejuefangandejudajianpaizenghuiqianliquebukehushi。woguosanbeifanghulintixijianshegongchenghangaile95%yishangdefengshaweihaiquhe40%deshuituliushiqu,40nianjian,gongchengqusenlinmianjijingzengjia2156wangongqing,senlinfugailvyou5.05%tigaodao13.57%,gutanleijidadao23.1yidun,xiangdangyu1980nianzhi2015nianquanguogongyeeryanghuatanpaifangzongliangde5.23%。daziranbaohuxiehuideyanjiujieguobiaoming,jiyuzirandejiejuefangannenggouweishixian《balixieding》mubiaogongxian30%zuoyoudejianpaiqianli,bingyoudayu66%dekenengxingjiangqihoubiannuankongzhizai2℃yinei。jijituidongjiyuzirandejiejuefangan,zengjiaduizirandetouzi,keyidixiaonanjianpaibumendeshengyupaifang,shiduixianyoutanjianpaijucuodeyoulibuchong,duishixian2060niantanzhonghemubiaozhiguanzhongyao。

  shixianquanjingjilingyu、suoyouwenshiqitijianpaidezhongyaolujing。woguotichude2030nianqiantandafengmubiao,zhuyaozhinengyuanhuodongchanshengdeeryanghuatandedafeng;er2060nianqiantanzhonghemubiao,zebaokuoquanjingjilingyuwenshiqitidepaifang,buzhibaokuoeryanghuatan,haibaokuojiawan、qingfutanhuawudengfeieryanghuatanwenshiqiti。houzhedeshendujianpai,bianjichengbenjiangchengfeixianxingkuaisushangshengqushi,bieryanghuatandeshendujianpaijishunandugengda。erjiyuzirandejiejuefanganzainongye、tudiliyongdenglingyudezhuduolujing,ganghaokeyixiangduijiaodidechengbenshixianfeieryanghuatanwenshiqitijianpai。zaiyixiangyikeyanweizhudaodexiangmuzhong,yinduandelabangdenongmincaiyongleyizhongxindejiyuzirandefangfa。zheizhong“lingyusuan”zirannongyezhuyaoyikaodichengbendezirantourulaizhongzhiliangshi,bingmeiyoushiyongangguide、juyouwuranxingdehuaxuechanpin。biru,nongminshiyongniufendaitihechengfeiliao,bujinjieshenglechengben,haijianshaolejiechuhuaxuewuzhidejihui。ciwai,tamenhaijianshaoturangfangeng,tongguojianzhongaizuowulaizengjiaturangfeili、tigaoliangshichanliang,bingjiangtanfengcunzaiturangzhong。gaixiangmudemubiaoshidao2024nian,rangandelabangde600wannongminquanbucaiyongzheizhongliangshizhongzhifangshi。dangran,congzhongshouyidebujinjinshinongmin,nongtianshengtaixitongdewuranchengduyehuijiangdi,qiekeyitongguotanfengcunxuejiannongyepaifangzongliang。

  dailaiduozhongxietongxiaoyi,zhuliyihoujingjifusuhelianheguokechixufazhanmubiaoshixian。jiyuzirandejiejuefangankecujinshengtaixitongfuwugongnengdezengjia,baokuobaochishuitu、hanyangshuiyuan、jinghuakongqi、fengfushengwuduoyangxingdeng,haihuidailaikeguandejingjiheshehuixiaoyi。xiangbiyuchuantongfangshi,jiyuzirandejiejuefanganjuyougenggaodechengbenxiaoyi。quanqiuqihoushiyingweiyuanhuiguji2020nianzhi2030nian,quanqiubaohuhexiufuhongshulinshengtaixitongdejingshouyikeda1wanyimeiyuan,shichengbende10bei。lingjushijieziyuanhuanjingyanjiusuoguji,zaijiyuzirandejiejuefanganlingyu,meitouzi100wanmeiyuankechansheng7gezhi40gejiuyegangwei。zuoweisanbeifanghulintixijianshegongchengdeyibufen,sandaisaihanbarenchenggongyingzaochuzongmianji112wanmu、senlinfugailvdadao80%deshijiezuidarengonglinhai,meinianchanshengdeshengtaifuwujiazhida142yiyuan,weijingjindiqushusongjingshui1.37yilifangmi、shifangyangqi57.06wandun、gudingeryanghuatan81.41wandun,shishouweijingjindezhongyaoshengtaipingzhang。ciwai,gailingyudetouzimaoyiyuyihoujingjicijijihua、gonggongjiuyeguihuaxiangjiehe,keweiwoguowenjiuyebaominshengzhuli。

  2、尚未形成相关政策和行动体系

  jiyuzirandejiejuefanganzheiyigainianzuizaochuxianyushijieyinxing2008nianfabude《shengwuduoyangxing、qihoubianhuaheshiying:shijieyinxingtouzizhongjiyuzirandejiejuefangan》zhong,zhuyaoqiangdiaoshengwuduoyangxingbaohuduiqihoubianhuajianhuanyushiyingdezhongyaoxing。suihoushijieziranbaohulianmengzheiyangdingyi:tongguobaohu、kechixuguanlihexiufuziranhuorengongshengtaixitong,youxiaoheshiyingxingdiyingduishehuitiaozhan,bingweirenleifuzhiheshengwuduoyangxingdailaiyichudexingdong;tongshi,jianyiyongjiyuzirandejiejuefanganyingduiqihoubianhua。2019nian,zailianheguomishuzhangdechangyixia,jiyuzirandejiejuefanganbeilieweilianheguoyingduiqihoubianhuadejiudalingyuzhiyi,zhongguohexinxilangongtongqiantouxiangguangongzuo。

  zaishengtaiwenmingjianshezhong,woguojianchirenyuziranhexiegongshengdelinian,zheitongjiyuzirandejiejuefanganzaisixiangshangyouyiqutonggongzhimiao。dangqian,woguozaiguotukongjianguihua、quanguozhongyaoshengtaixitongbaohuhexiufuzhongdagongchengzongtiguihuadenggongzuozhongjileiledaliangjingyan,ranerzuoweixinshenggainian,jiyuzirandejiejuefanganshangweichengweiyingduiqihoubianhuadechangguijucuo:yifangmian,fanganlinianshangweigenzhiyutounaozhong,gedifang、bumenmeiyouzhudongjiangfanganxingdongyuyingduiqihoubianhuajianliqilianxi,gengbieshuokaolvqijiandexietongzhiliqianlile;lingyifangmian,haichuxianlegainianfanhuashiyongdeqingxiang,guofenkuadafanganduiyutandafengtanzhonghedezuoyong。

  ciwai,woguoshangweixingchengyijiyuzirandejiejuefanganweiqierudiandezhengcehexingdongtixi,jutibiaoxianwei:xiangguanzhengcexingdongfensanzaibutongzhinengbumen,erbutongbumenjianquefagoutongxiediaojizhi,nanyixingchengzishangerxia、gaoxiaotongchoudeguanlijizhi;zijinlaiyuanjiaoweidanyi,rengyicaizhengtouruweizhu,weixingchengshehuigefangguangfancanyu、duoyuanhuadezijintourujizhi;duijiyuzirandejiejuefangandekexueyanjiurengxianbuzu,duigeleishengtaixitongtanhuiqianlidekexuerenzhirengbuqingxi,quefaduichengbenxiaoyidekexuepinggu,nanyiweijuecezhehetouzizhetigongyouxiaodexinxizhichideng。

  3、推动解决方案贡献绿色低碳发展

  ruherangjiyuzirandejiejuefangangenghaodifahuizuoyong?

  shouxian,jiaqiangduigeshengtaixitongjianpaiqianlijichengbendeyanjiu,pinggubingshaixuanchugelingyuyouxianfazhandelujing。weici,yaojianlijianquanjiyuzirandejiejuefangandejiance、baogao、hechatixi,kexuehelidizengjiaxiangguanxingdongdedingliangmubiao,jianggeleibaohudimianjizhibiaonaruxiangguanbumentandafengtanzhonghexingdongfanganzhong,yidingliangzhibiaozengqiangzhengcexiaoli,qianghuajiyuzirandejiejuefanganzaizhilicengmiandediwei。tongshi,fahuicaizhengzijindeyinlingzuoyong,guligengduoshehuizibenliurujiyuzirandejiejuefanganlingyu,fuyuziranyaosukexuehelidejiage,tongguodingjiajizhiyindaoshichangtouziziranziben;jiaqiangtanshichangduijiyuzirandejiejuefangandejilijizhihezhengceyanjiu,kaolvzaitanshichangzhongnaruxiangguanxingdong;cujinbingcaiyonglvsegongyinglian,bimianweihuilinheqitaweihaishengtaixitongdehuodongtigongzijin。

  qici,jianlizishangerxiadejiyuzirandejiejuefanganguanlijizhi,tuidongbumenzhijiandegoutongxiediao。yitandafengtanzhonghegongzuolingdaoxiaozuweizhongxin,weiraoyingduiqihoubianhuaxuyao,jiaqiangbumenzhijianzaijiyuzirandejiejuefanganlingyudexietonggongzuojizhi。gebumenyaojishijiaohuanxinxi,dapobileishixianxinxigongxiang,kaolvkaizhanjiyuzirandejiejuefanganshidiangongcheng,dajiangongzuojiaoliuhezuopingtai,shixingbutongzhuguanbumenzhijiandehezuo,mosuoxingchenggebumenxietongzhilidetizhijizhi。

  zaici,zhidingduomubiaoduolingyudejiyuzirandejiejuefanganxietongzhilizhengce。kaolvdaogaijiejuefanganzaijingji、shehui、huanjinglingyujudadexietongxiaoyi,yaokexuepinggujiyuzirandejiejuefanganlujingzaiyingduiqihoubianhua、shengwuduoyangxingbaohu、shengtaiwenmingjianshe、jianzaifangzai、fupinjiankundenglingyudexietongxiaoyi,qianghuaqizaiyingduiqihoubianhuaheshengtaihuanjingbaohu、daqiwuranzhilidengduolingyudexietongzhili,rangshehuigejielejieziranzibendejiazhi,youxiantouzicujincileixietongzuoyongdexingdong。

  zuihou,jiezhujiyuzirandejiejuefangantuiguangshengtaiwenminglinian,zengjinguojishehuiduiwoguodelijiehezhichi。yijiyuzirandejiejuefanganweiqiaoliang,cujin《lianheguoshengwuduoyangxinggongyue》dishiwucidiyuefangdahuihe《lianheguoqihoubianhuakuangjiagongyue》diershiliucidiyuefangdahuideduijiehexietongzengxiao。chongfenliyonganlituiguangshuchuzhongguochenggongzhihui,shulihezongjiezhongguojiyuzirandejiejuefanganyouxiuanli,baokuo“shengtaibaohuhongxian”zhidu、zhishuzaolinhekechixusenlinguanli、shanshuilintianhucaoshabingshengtaibaohuxiufushidiangongchengdeng,xingchenganliji,zai“yidaiyilu”fenghui、《lianheguoshengwuduoyangxinggongyue》dishiwucidiyuefangdahui、《lianheguoqihoubianhuakuangjiagongyue》diershiliucidiyuefangdahuidengduobianpingtaixuanchuantuiguang,tongshijieheguoqingyinruguojichenggonganli,weiwoguotishengjiyuzirandejiejuefanganxingdongtigongzhichi。zaituidonggaizhengcexingdongchuanboguochengzhong,yingyuxijinpingshengtaiwenmingsixiang、“liangshan”linian、renleimingyungongtongtiliniandengyoujijiehe,yongguojishehuilijiedeyuyanjianghaozhongguogushi,huoquguojishehuidelijieyuzhichi。ciwai,haikekaolvzaiguojiduobianhezuopingtaixiashelijiyuzirandejiejuefanganzhuanmenjigou,cujingexiangxingdongshishiyijigefangjiaoliuhezuo。

  (zuozhe:gubaihe、anyan,fenbiexi九州体育kejizhanlvezixunyanjiuyuanfuyanjiuyuan、zhonghezhanlveguihuayanjiuzongyuanzhuliyanjiuyuan)

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  • © 1996 - 九州体育 版权所有 京ICP备05002857号-1 京公网安备110402500047号 网站标识码bm48000002

    dizhi:beijingshixichengqusanlihelu52hao youbian:100864

    dianhua: 86 10 68597114(zongji) 86 10 68597289(zongzhibanshi)

    bianjibuyouxiang:casweb@cashq.ac.cn

  • © 1996 - 九州体育 版权所有
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